b larval weight and developmental time was recorded to quantify herbivore success (growth rate in mg/day). © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. CAS  Adult beet armyworm moth. Small cluster of beet armyworm eggs. Genome Biol. 1994;127(4):617–33. In this study, we investigated how resistance to deltamethrin relates to enzyme activity in gossypol-pretreated larvae of S. exigua. The importance of diverse and flexible gene expression involved in digestion and detoxification for a major polyphagous herbivore is evident from this study. But insects evolved adaptive responses [74]. Modern pest control strategies are concerned with minimizing the use of chemical insecticides with their known hazards to the environment, beneficial fauna, and human health. Finally, the prepared samples were sequenced on Illumina HiSeq 4000 platform with 150 bp paired-end (PE) reads (see Additional file 3: Table S3 for an overview of number of raw reads per treatment). 2006;57:303–33. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). (2008). Plant protease inhibitors: significance in nutrition, plant protection, cancer prevention and genetic engineering: Springer Science & Business Media; 2003. This colony originated with the USDA in Louisiana. Li H, Guillemaud T, French B, Kuhlmann U, Toepfer S. Phenotypic trait changes in laboratory–reared colonies of the maize herbivore, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera. The artificial diet consisted of water, corn flower, agar, yeast, wheat germ, sorbic acid, methylparaben, ascorbic acid and streptomycin sulphate. 2011;479(7374):487. A local strain of the fungus B. bassiana, originally isolated from a naturally infected mole cricket, Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa L. by El-Husseini et al. Larvae are extremely cannibalistic after second instar, especially when confined. ABCs involved in xenobiotic detoxification processes have been identified to belong to the ABC-B, ABC-C and ABC-G subfamilies [67, 68]. Pupae develop within a silky cocoon. Young MD, Wakefield MJ, Smyth GK, Oshlack A. Gene ontology analysis for RNA-seq: accounting for selection bias. The isoform and gene abundance estimation was done using RSEM v.1.3.0 [80], resulting in a per-treatment count matrix which was fed into the Trinity package perl script ‘abundance_estimates_to_matrix.pl’ to construct a raw (non-normalized) count matrix. The R package PVClust v.2.0 [34] was used to analyse the sample relationships based on the filtered and normalised count matrix. In short, a total of 3 μg total RNA extract was used for each library preparation. California Privacy Statement, Interestingly, such a host-specific gene expression activity pattern is missing for the other two diet types where S. exigua larvae showed optimal levels of herbivory: artificial diet and the host plant Z. mays. Cookies policy. We aimed to identify shared and/or unique gene expression patterns in relation to the different host plants. Hierarchical cluster dendrogram using multiscale bootstrap resampling of Spodoptera exigua larvae samples with different diet treatments each consisting of three replicates. This species is a member of the family Noctuidae and occurs worldwide except for cold regions [24]. The transcripts from the assembly were used as a query for a BLASTX search using the same protein database. Labbé R, Caveney S, Donly C. Genetic analysis of the xenobiotic resistance-associated ABC gene subfamilies of the Lepidoptera. Privacy 2016;111(5):901–6. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. Insect Sci. volume 29, Article number: 52 (2019) Feyereisen R, Koener JF, Farnsworth DE, Nebert DW. Kelkenberg M, Odman-Naresh J, Muthukrishnan S, Merzendorfer H. Chitin is a necessary component to maintain the barrier function of the peritrophic matrix in the insect midgut. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Cluster 2 (transcripts upregulated in control samples and a B. oleracea sample; 4 annotated transcripts in total) only contained ABC genes. Still, larvae were exposed to the defences present in the host plant during collecting. The numbers of larvae were counted in both the treatment and the control fields, and the reduction rates due to the treatment were calculated only for the first inspection after application of the fungi following El-Husseini et al. Although cluster 2 and 6 both contained unique REPAT genes as well (cluster 2: REPAT 45, cluster 6: REPAT 10 and 12), cluster 1 contained 20 transcripts identified as REPAT from 16 different REPAT types. Larvae are somewhat cannibalistic after second instar and are extremely active. The diet amount in each cell was enough for the larva to complete the development and pupate inside the cell. Pupae were collected from the rearing units, rinsed with water shower on a sieve, and placed each 20 ones in a 2-l jar furnished with filter paper until adult moth emergence. It is common in Egypt that the farmers control this pest in sugar beet by applying different insecticides. 8 oz cups, up to fourth instars (discount). © 2020 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. Both cluster 3 (transcript downregulated in N. tabacum samples and a Z. mays sample) and cluster 6 (transcripts upregulated in larvae feeding on B. oleracea) had no significant GO terms overrepresented. Genes of only three out of five detoxification families were identified: CCE, GST and ABC transporters. These foliage feeders usually are not a serious problem on established stands unless there are enough to severely defoliate plants. 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG. We want to thank Els Roode, Han Yue and in specific we gratefully acknowledge the late Hanke Bloksma (Virology, WUR) for advice and help with the S. exigua rearing and experiments. This project is supported by EPS strategic funds given to S.Si. PubMed  The filtered (gene count of ≥10 and occurrence ≥2 samples) and normalized (CPM + TMM normalization) gene count matrix was used as input, including 58,749 genes. For each of the six identified DE clusters the statistically overrepresented GO terms (BH corrected p-value < 0.05) were calculated relative to the reference of all other GO annotated transcripts of the reference assembly. However, no previous studies have examined the molecular mechanisms underlying the influence of cadmium exposure on insect reproduction. Mortality was recorded daily for 10 days post-treatment. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. Nucleic Acids Res. We identified differential gene expression patterns as a result of feeding on different hosts. Larvae are extremely aggressive and cannibalistic after second instar. California Privacy Statement, The four other gene families were less often identified: P450 (51 transcripts), GST (26 transcripts), CCE (37 transcripts), and UGT (19 transcripts). As soon as the first larva reached the third larval stage all larvae were collected on ice, frozen and weighed on a Sartorius MSE3.6P-000-DM Cubis Micro Balance (Sartorius, Göttingen, Germany). The interplay between induced defences of living plants in response of feeding insects shows the importance of using full living plants in studies analysing plant-insect interactions. BMC Genomics. Kant M, Jonckheere W, Knegt B, Lemos F, Liu J, Schimmel B, Villarroel C, Ataide L, Dermauw W, Glas J. Mechanisms and ecological consequences of plant defence induction and suppression in herbivore communities. In our study we used three host plant species: cabbage (Brassica oleracea), maize (Zea mays) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). They burrow into heading vegetables, such as lettuce and cabbage. Growth rate (mg/day) was calculated by dividing the total larval weight (mg) by the number of days the larvae were allowed to feed (point of collecting: first observed larva reaching third larval phase). Trends Ecol Evol. The identification of these expression patterns provides us information on the general genetic mechanism of herbivory, and, moreover, shows the diversity in transcriptional responses of insects while feeding on alternative host plants. Only BLAST hits with an E-value >1e− 5 were selected as putative detoxification genes. Both UDP-glycosyltransferases and glutathione-S-transferases are active in the second phase of the detoxification process. Among the transcripts annotated in this cluster were 39 (BLASTX identification; 41 with Trinotate) encoding for cuticle-related proteins. Centre of Biological Control, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt, You can also search for this author in More recently, plants are incorporated into molecular studies on the transcriptional response of insects, mimicking a more natural system. It is native to Asia, but has been introduced worldwide and is now found almost anywhere its many host crops are grown. Beet armyworms are difficult to control, and options are limited. Nucleic Acids Res. 3099067 This confirms recent findings for the role of these genes in xenobiotic detoxification within the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) and the tobacco cutworm (Spodoptera litura) [60,61,62]. Sivapragasam, A. J Econ Entomol. CPM, TMM cross-sample normalised and filtered count matrix. Diamondback moth larvae are very small and delicate, developing very quickly. Mol Biol Evol. Page last updated 10/29/2013 by J.P. Michaud. Koenig C, Bretschneider A, Heckel DG, Grosse-Wilde E, Hansson BS, Vogel H. The plastic response of Manduca sexta to host and non-host plants. The author thanks Eng. 2013;110(2):E113–22. BAW eggs are laid in masses, and hatch rate is typically excellent. Nature. Malaysian Plant Protection Society Newsletter October, 6–7. 2017;24(2):235–47. Monir M. M. El Husseini. The 400 million years of interaction and co-evolution between plants and insects has led to a wide diversity of plant defences, to which herbivorous insects in turn have evolved a diverse array of resistance and detoxification mechanisms [1]. We analysed larval performance after feeding assays on the selected host plant species to quantify herbivore success and adaptability to the specific host defences (Fig. An upregulation of genes involved in cuticle formation can be an indication for diet response. The diet was poured into trays (20 × 30 cm) in a layer of 2 cm in thickness. Endo H, Tanaka S, Imamura K, Adegawa S, Kikuta S, Sato R. Cry toxin specificities of insect ABCC transporters closely related to lepidopteran ABCC2 transporters. ABC-C2 is only upregulated in larvae feeding on N. tabacum absent of Cry proteins, suggesting that ABC-C2 only has a role in alkaloid resistance. Spodoptera exigua is considered a major polyphagous species, being able to feed and develop on a large variety of host plants [25]. Bioinformatics. Adult beet armyworm moth. Upregulation of genes in multiple treatments and/or absence of a response in part of the samples within a treatment are interpreted as non-host plant species-specific gene expression effects. To estimate sample and biological replicate relationships, the filtered and normalised count matrix was analysed using cluster bootstrapping with 10,000 replications with the R package PVClust v.2.0 [34]. For cluster 6 (transcripts upregulated in larvae feeding on B. oleracea) no significant overrepresented GO terms were present. Diet supplied as a dry mix powder with agar included. We have used the trinity pipeline to perform a differential gene expression analysis with DESeq2 v.1.18.1 [35] to identify transcripts differentially expressed (DE) across samples. 1988;77(3):378–81. Secondary metabolites in plant defence mechanisms.