^U90HY0AuE2pE4M>CpqML(pLX_oI5. G;9U`)aqVX?u]>?Z/V9V/24?H Their combination and interference cause of tensions in a federal democracy. %PDF-1.4 <> ?�� ?kG)g+RSM:5tc'u+*'0L%*:NB*)%[qn/UFF endobj Parteienwettbewerb im Bundesstaat. Conlan, Timothy. that motivate our theory, political identity and federalism. n%-Go1tr7Q6Z8]Cc3gdPN1L-4Fg:&F/XMAi@;h`PI6[)iDH? 2020. ?AYQS*/pT1,%QT[Jt Democracy is said to constitute a precondition of a stable federation, and federalism supports democracy. Incongruence of structures and divergence of mechanisms of politics materialize with the institutionalisation of federalism and democracy, two principles of a political order which are compatible from a normative point of view. However, when they are established in federal democracies, institutional structures and processes reveal tensions. ->>okGE6#?Q[R#"rTT0E8-`Nt3b.t56\bl>!,
E'0UP6.+j:bMti#mQ-Ul##URN5IS95I\Qj/\+`@s'.WQS=>$R=N-S!JC x��\Ks��Fr�oH�p�V�4 ��:���+v�R�HQ���L�+ӕ���Kfz^� ��r��v��w�{���$I����*�_ԿE]̲*�����g_~���^��r? -:kArq3B/G&rpEi8+U*@/2J /Contents 6 0 R>> nbSXIE^:H+BAb!crQKM>FZi2X0(]B_.-t$qMueHE4f1CqN;=CgFPd8M(r5md)>s." U32AUZgejgVnE<4K^8tGe.4OISF7P?^MiE=f&1(CDOc\$R In consequence the federal government has more and more extended its regulative power. Z[os^\D,2@)jIf*Ro<5OoGD'L.\%t.69fUb\ls(qgV!ui^`')^F]S84,CZ""pmOV] (M$a`S.,j3EmE,.I&`i_fIk6pT%R;$VJ(f9$OW 0l:rRe_`LE;9GsfB%CA\? Benz, Arthur, Sonnicksen, Jared. Contrariwise, coordinated governance strengthens the executives. 0iDGE-V`>7ZLZ'I[\dUHB)J*qG$(LQn!JDJHSJXU3fK]`([X>+e%9SO8&u&_8iK;! ]�~����$^Z��@�͒��$ΪY��q�͊,��d����ş���/��;6�Zìyi��V���,����8����2�U�Bl%�I�,����]�����!j�mG_��wQ�i����G����7?��^��׌���Y���?��vw�]��_۩~'��iҊ���UbA���f��GGq����c����z�����i%X5�"�yzɶ4/�E=��9m��v�I�����o�O�D���^l�A@��Q�0Oz�>�C�:�m�{m�|���w���҈>���]�bУ�E/���%k/}�f�;��N~���ȕ�*3� �m��z���Nļo�㛯cE� I��7�"�H���RX�&(��){b����#�qV�K�Gq������]]�.�.i��nq N5=#�D.8�љ�s[}$f�}K��e9X;���;L��8�!&��}�*�H�$�f�Ld�yƅ<1,����I�I% >��J���=�V̝ZV>�C� b�4��=�(���-î�#w���[i~H���։�S�����^�q���nI$��O_��KoG�k��p_n��?/P���A�/��l��� In this competitive process, responsible political actors claim that they do the best for their citizens, that they defend the public interests of their constituency against threats or expectations from outside, and that they prevent external effects caused in other jurisdictions. It not only encompasses different territories and different territorial levels, but also establishes processes of coordination in order to manage interdependence between policies made within the territorially defined jurisdictions. endstream endobj 4 0 obj<> endobj 5 0 obj<> endobj 6 0 obj<>stream However, when they are established in federal democracies, institutional structures and processes reveal tensions. Conclusion: Governing Under the Condition of Complexity, in: Behnke, Nathalie, Broschek, Jörg, and Sonnicksen, Jared (eds.

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In comparative federalism, his recent publications contributed to research on constitutional change and federalism and democracy. Rpj.7-kIA7'Vheq`M"O82tngr? This particular organisation of a political system is characterised by structural incongruence and divergent mechanisms of governance. Lf4_K,jR@KM]lm4KMQ7'MVH^Z. -B\pT2:'bWa\:ZY&30uW1eS(/$r37u8pLho6p5mGPu,:GALbr125:U)]!dscM]_LD Democracy is said to constitute a precondition of a stable federation, and federalism supports democracy. Their situation is different in loosely coupled systems, for instance in one-party governments or consensus democracies and in a federal system establishing a framework for autonomy-preserving coordination. 2017. kH(/#H)^L,-S(. At the same time, a government can claim autonomy within its territorial jurisdiction and citizens can assign full responsibility for policies to those they have elected. Federalism can support democracy, because both principles of a political order prevent a concentration of power. Only political practice can lead to an optimal balance of the diverging requirements, and this is possible only if neither of them determines politics and actors’ behaviour. "tlJBNAr6e`O022!1lY!CS?HE6j^.ISqht4.t*0GR%96$P`i#Y()h;l\] <>

Regelsysteme und Spannungslagen im Institutionengefüge der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Wiesbaden: Westdeutscher Verlag, 3rd ed. 1.

Yet managing interdependence between jurisdictions requires them to take into account the overarching functions to be fulfilled in a federation. Parliamentary Federations and Limited Government. /Contents 4 0 R>> &t&9\hXG49Jo)K_B0Mo8Gg^cQU!`@i/ Lehmbruch, Gerhard. Federalism and democracy . Therefore, it is less the particular institutional form as such but the coupling of processes of democracy and federalism which is essential to make a federal democracy work.
Beyond this territorial incongruence, federalism and democracy operate according to different procedures and modes of politics and policy-making. ;"^^ZqHRU`nMs0f>V>+d3%a[R)`pf$&JU('o#C3!#p^'X4Ri*5S_::" '$[`7(J7'WZ/^0CXkU==n=PN).sOY!XA@/()XTNQ[2=1i1Ml& His research has focused on German politics and publica administration, comparative federalism and multilevel governance. O$B-,mse\]X0Sb[ApsLULSoX)IOUil@e)X?T$)@gNodO%*in!?%XAX36"h_75t1t__Pq?^\Lla![;]CkE8O? 54\3WEAfnj.^lm%N4$2cS'/qU+.R&7D;FRd0Moaj?Z_MKM7#r23d&3'`ITLt8OrYR Uj\,Zkh-jh=jEk_&8W0#O[8?,Qb$:n@=T]3DIj0V>r`0m<0?W?_B,A.)N? Z�>��f�V���f��=٣G#rl�R����"ъ��'��_b�O��"��#�Ճ��z[�8���@��IZ�K0�H�2炟����]c{Ҩ�??�3y'M5. Loosely coupled systems not only increase the flexibility of politics which allow actors to cope with conflicting expectations, they increase the adaptability of institutions in order to balance intergovernmental politics and the autonomy of democratic governments. 5"oj%\/BBVKmiKLPJAY[L/"8`:7(2J1U5N1=P. %���� Wd!8N2$p#bd+6AVhKK">Zh@KLI/hg82/$7j[BOM#XJ4(um\dVo@KF08B.6j8NH$CY "NH&k)]bEX#mT`^0S1Wl@qZFRH`U?#M%di#3>MB(dIJhr=Im%)R Eo, n-h]^L=2,#h`*ErLI(Z1aI13Q2iPbXOf<5A3:Ea%1V47N`f5G#pI4t(& two basic concepts: political identity and federalism Political Identity *fg<=L7ciIA.kW=eA#IRksLB?C9:=[9J1#\P=_SI#PBq :DPauqH89E\drcmiW9PrA;F=S As powers are separated between federal and state governments, intergovernmental relations are rarely institutionalised and thus hardly in conflict with the autonomy of democratic governments. However, political polarisation, coalition agreements or binding mandates can strongly tie them to party politics, and institutionalized power-sharing can compel them to coordinate polices across jurisdictions. 0e]5VNJg8tIQ&tX.rSVG9q(NS\NS`p*rFcIIn\-GfF01&g=#JsN5V]epa0fOQrK=] )2-P#=LZl.CE^`dUo)M0VO+Car^H6*1#5'&D:drU-m/5]P`;SXAQH[ Eo'*?VXo$m=;*ImKHXn(GEgRkd_FhTA7!Qr(1EPLecFg/Iso'Et1np\t. In modern democracies, the relations between elected representatives exerting power and the citizens holding them accountable in elections are organised in a territory. Q^`u`m1cd#oERlP2Y:\/ Available at: Benz, Arthur. Patterns of Federal Democracy: Tensions, Friction, or Balance Between two Government Dimensions; European Political Science Review 9 (1): 3-25. Comparative research can reveal how federalism and democracy should be linked in order to allow actors to balance effective coordination and legitimacy of governments. Federalism and Democracy: A Critical Reassessment, in: Skogstad, Grace et al. 1 0 obj<> endobj 2 0 obj<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 3 0 obj<>stream Federalism and democracy are often considered as coherent principles. Hueglin, Thomas O. Multilevel Democracy: A Comparative Perspective, in: Behnke, Nathalie, Broschek, Jörg, and Sonnicksen, Jared (eds. 1999. Or governments mutually adjust their policies in interjurisdictional competition, while in a democracy decisions are influenced by party competition. YctI*9ZYZ>AG?^8*1Fd50VTjZY3o4o3Kh#KPr*2j-7+e#Wh(MFg#8h"ID@]sA-EEY"%/p&s8dC6^^q>P8j[J.2U=h%fhX0`/, abenz@pg.tu-darmstadt.de Scharpf, Fritz W. 2019. A federal system allows citizens to compare political systems and ‘vote with their feet’ by moving to a state they find more congenial. However, federal structures also constrain democracy by limiting the power of the people. Yet in order to interact strategically, actors need room for manoeuvre. As these rules require autonomy of governments and coordination, no institutional configuration can avoid conflicts. 1pr\^[u,t,BLdTUWYWTKAB'3YMi1dFqQMXT;Kl]sZ%L4&@Q))F"lkbFiifp:B;Z9q6u/.u'1;8]K5CUET&/ Gi%E6\9O%rWub.tXj'$\4VEh$(7lJ84?%i^*0X#(MoVbT-nP[qGBkf84Zoo1(Y>&= BXk<0;/hiV6t[/[*o;RF(Is3,"P3]4c!l;/c%o$D]*t)2CY=jV'X*A'\I?hq3?R$3 �+�Q�üp�q���@��oD1�Q, o BHk-3lE"a5'G-1:ta>&Z;6ufp.8s=HKLIWdq[aaLaqB_75jPA These risks seem comparatively low in federal democracies where powers are separated, like, for instance, in non-parliamentary democracies and so called dual federal systems. ;h/nbI-T[@j*%=6\S\b GBtYrl$pBt38@3P.JW"BVT!qA9V>F#Za4KClrSj>2%>LI9btW4Um@gKe,b Directly elected heads of federal and state executives seem to be democratically legitimised to manage interdependence in the federation without being constrained by accountability to a parliament. Certainly, the institutional configuration, in particular the type of democracy and federalism, makes a difference for the tensions in a federal democracy. Federal democracies constitute complex organisations of governments. Cs3Ra"@3Z9G'P9:>tLoJ/QDiKqAEQ!0lf)KE?D62j;I.=&iU1A>Xi2QFq[E:f8e5>=hP*`3PStHX$:=;6hD3t'$b3:A/7qRepD?rP`SBg@qGGHRoEd,7;d_ea 50 Shades of Federalism. RH6c!8c+`dbGJ*:6>$7oaR@2R1([!q]Q2C5R7)VU@d``P)H@?KkB(/4"KA.Q6&Hc^ In relations with other governments, they are bound to the will of their people, and party competition reinforces inward-looking orientations.