We careered through a small town whose single dusty street was congested with moto-taxis, rickety conveyances that look like the offspring of a tryst between a motor scooter and a pedicab. After experimentation, Hernandez grouped together information in a collection of four species of Solanaceae “especies de solano” or “species of the nightshade”, the first of which was the tomato. [65] Marigolds also repel nematodes.[66][67][68].

It translates to "wolfpeach"—peach because it was round and luscious and wolf because it was erroneously considered poisonous.

And they grew more inbred when Spanish explorers brought a few seeds from present-day Mexico to Europe, further separating tomatoes from their ancestral roots.

In 1897, soup mogul Joseph Campbell came out with condensed tomato soup, a move that set the company on the road to wealth as well as further endearing the tomato to the general public.

[citation needed], Most tomato plants have compound leaves, and are called regular leaf (RL) plants, but some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf (PL) style because of their resemblance to that particular relative. However, the ripe fruit contains no tomatine.

Several US states have adopted the tomato as a state fruit or vegetable (see above). Terms of Use

If researchers from one nation want to use biological resources from another nation, they must first get its consent and fully inform the donor country about what they plan to do with the material. However, not all of Europe was enamored with this new dish. The first cultivated tomatoes were yellow and cherry-sized, earning them the name golden apples: pommes d'or in French, pomi d'oro in Italian and goldapfel in German.

Spanish history from that point on recognized tomatoes in two forms: “tomatl” which were green tomatoes used as a sour ingredient in soups and stews, and “xaltomatl or xitomatl” which translated to “fruit tomato” and were red, yellow or white.

[64], Tomato plants can protect asparagus from asparagus beetles, because they contain solanine that kills this pest,[citation needed] while asparagus plants contain Asparagusic acid that repels nematodes known to attack tomato plants. It is used in diverse ways, including raw in salads or in slices, stewed, incorporated into a wide variety of dishes, or processed into ketchup or tomato soup. History of the Tomato in Italy and China.

Possibly, some people continued to think tomatoes were poisonous at this time; and in general, they were grown more as ornamental plants than as food. The tomato russet mite, Aculops lycopersici, feeds on foliage and young fruit of tomato plants, causing shrivelling and necrosis of leaves, flowers, and fruit, possibly killing the plant.

[31] According to Bernardino de Sahagún, the Aztecs cooked various sauces, some with and without tomatoes of different sizes, serving them in city markets: "foods sauces, hot sauces; fried [food], olla-cooked [food], juices, sauces of juices, shredded [food] with chile (Chili pepper), with squash (plant) seeds (most likely Cucurbita pepo), with tomatoes, with smoked chile, with hot chile, with yellow chile, with mild red chile sauce, yellow chile sauce, hot chile sauce, with "bird excrement" sauce, sauce of smoked chile, heated [sauces], bean sauce; [he sells] toasted beans, cooked beans, mushroom sauce, sauce of small squash, sauce of large tomatoes, sauce of ordinary tomatoes, sauce of various kinds of sour herbs, avocado sauce. In 1887, U.S. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables, but not on fruit, caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance.

In 1519, Cortez discovered tomatoes growing in Montezuma's gardens and brought seeds back to Europe where they were planted as ornamental curiosities, but not eaten. Various forms of mildew and blight are common tomato afflictions, which is why tomato cultivars are often marked with a combination of letters that refer to specific disease resistance. [41][42], When Livingston began his attempts to develop the tomato as a commercial crop, his aim had been to grow tomatoes smooth in contour, uniform in size, and sweet in flavor. “Before, you could just take the seeds out of the country and distribute them to researchers and breeders,” Chetelat said. They are also used in gazpacho (Spanish cuisine) and pa amb tomàquet (Catalan cuisine).

This case resulted in the tomato becoming classified as a vegetable, based on its use in meals, rather than as a fruit, which is the botanically correct classification.