They are good source of Vitamin A, folate, Vitamin K and dietary fiber. Yet bagged or fresh-cut spinach and romaine and iceberg lettuce have been associated with major outbreaks. [18][19], In June 2018, the FDA traced the source of the latest E. coli outbreak to water from a canal located in Yuma, Arizona.[20]. Assuming an average weight of 90 g per plastic container or bag, we produce 21,000 heads of frilled, pleated, sunny, and romaine lettuce every day (Figure 26.9). It comes from the same plant family as other types of lettuce. To these staples are added sources of vitamins and minerals, and sometimes protein, with an adequate level of fiber maintained. However, the fact that the time interval between inoculation and treatment was brief (∼1 h) may have contributed to the large reductions by precluding opportunities for bacterial internalization and biofilm formation that might otherwise have occurred if the samples had been stored prior to treatment. Treatment of shredded or fresh-cut iceberg lettuce with ozone resulted in 1- to 2-log reductions in counts of the natural microflora (Kim et al., 1999; Garcia et al., 2003); ozone-chlorine combinations were more effective than the individual treatments (Garcia et al., 2003). Fresh produce surface decontamination with ultrasound has been a topic of research for a few years. It is also enjoyed in sandwiches. (2004) reported large reductions in the concentration of free chlorine as the ratio of lettuce to solution and treatment time increased, the largest decreases occurring with shredded iceberg lettuce and iceberg pieces. Romaine lettuce goes well with vegetables, seeds. While addition of ClO2 to wash water used in fresh-cut processing of red chard prevented cross-contamination by E. coli O157:H7 on inoculated leaves, it did not prevent cross-contamination from Salmonella (Tomas-Callejas et al., 2012b). These results may provide some insight into the survival of human pathogens on contaminated lettuce leaves cleaned and sanitized with commercial washing equipment. Scientific name is the name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). Consequently, high spectral resolution would appear to be necessary for effective multispectral implementation of two-band ratios that use two wavebands in close proximity of each other for online differentiation of bovine fecal contamination and uncontaminated leaf areas for leafy greens. Similar results were obtained by Stopforth et al. It could be consumed in the form of smoothie, vegetable, salad etc. Also, beans, peas, and lentils including pinto beans, lima beans, green peas, black-eyed peas, and kidney beans are excellent sources of folic acids [165]. longifolia (Lam.) Romaine lettuce contains adequate amount of folate which converts homocysteine which if not converted leads to heart problems such as plaque buildup and blood vessels damage. Romaine lettuce treated with apple films had a higher likelihood of being purchased in comparison to other films. This would facilitate rapid and precise recalls, reducing the number of human illnesses and limiting monetary loss to an entire industry. Numerous studies have indicated the limited ability of chlorine to reduce populations of human pathogens on inoculated lettuce, typically reporting 1- to 2-log reductions, with regrowth during posttreatment storage (Beuchat and Brackett 1990; Zhang and Farber, 1996; Beuchat et al., 1998; Delaquis et al., 2002; Lang et al., 2004; Beuchat et al., 2004; Hellström et al., 2006). They suggested that this might be due to a reduction in the population of indigenous microflora, thereby giving L. innocua a competitive advantage. The plant produces elongated and loaf-shaped heads which arise upright from the center stem. Likewise, avocado/butter pea was reported to contain up to 110 μg of folate per cup. (2001) modeled depletion of chlorine during washing of fresh-cut spinach at different chlorine concentrations, water-to-produce ratios, and treatment times, all of which affected extent of depletion. [6], Romaine lettuce may be used in the Passover Seder ritual feast as a type of bitter herb. It is apparent that the efficacy of commercially available, FDA-approved sanitizing agents against human pathogens on contaminated lettuce and other leafy vegetables is limited to population reductions of 1 to 3 logs at best. The leaves of Romaine lettuce could be used to wrap fillings. Reductions in the total microbial populations were only 2 to 3 logs. And investigators are stumped", "FDA Investigating Multistate Outbreak of,, "Spain's salad growers are modern-day slaves, say charities",, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 6 November 2020, at 23:57. [3] Many dictionaries trace the word cos to the name of the Greek island of Cos, from which the lettuce was presumably introduced. Population reductions of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. Romaine, like other lettuces, may also be cooked. To generate the ratio images of the contamination spots on the leafy greens, a mask image for the leaves, created from the 680.0 nm waveband, was used to remove the image background. Asparagus had been reported to contain up to 262 μg of folic acid additionally it fulfills the need of vitamin K, vitamin C, vitamin A, and manganese. Population reductions for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. Fiber and water is present in Romaine lettuce which assist the body to shed itself of excess water weight and bloat which helps to achieve a desired goal. (2008) reported similarly large reductions in populations of E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, and L. monocytogenes on spot-inoculated spinach and lettuce leaves by treatment with acidic electrolyzed water for 3 min. The studies show that beta carotene helps to prevent macular degeneration which associated with age-related blindness. Mey. Presumably, this is a consequence of the strong attachment of contaminants to inaccessible sites on the leaf surface and cut edges, internalization of bacterial cells within the leaf (Solomon et al., 2002), and incorporation of cells within resistant biofilms (Carmichael et al., 1999) so that contact between the human pathogens and sanitizing agent is insufficient for inactivation (see Chapter 2). Palatable greens include romaine and other leaf lettuces. Free radicals form due to the intake of processed foods or being exposed to pollutants, toxins and radiation.