Now the question was what purposes could the deceased leader serve. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Images of Lenin’s stern visage soon appeared everywhere throughout the Soviet Union in stone and metal, on canvas, and in print. Inspired by both genuine reverence and a political desire to mobilize the masses around a potent symbol, the Politbiuro decided — against Lenin’s own wishes and those of his family — to embalm his body and place it in a sarcophagus inside a mausoleum for public viewing. One of the last photographs of a frail Lenin, taken in 1923. Among the latter was the birthplace of the October Revolution which assumed the name of Leningrad on January 26, 1924. “Lenin could have gone on for another 20 or 25 years, assuming he wasn’t assassinated. ... Then, in his last hours and days of his life, Lenin experienced severe seizures. The slogan “Lenin lived, Lenin lives, Lenin will live” typified the discourse of revolutionary immortality. The cult of Lenin, a fusion of political and religious ritual, was the answer. “He almost certainly died of delirium tremens.”. His mother was the daughter of a physician, while his father, though the son of a serf, became a schoolteacher and rose to the position of inspector of schools. The man’s cerebral arteries, Dr. Giffi added, were “so calcified that when tapped with tweezers they sounded like stone.”. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Enjoy the best Vladimir Lenin Quotes at BrainyQuote. One bullet lodged in his collarbone after puncturing his lung. The mausoleum, designed by A. V. Shchusev as a cube-like structure of gleaming red granite, was built on Red Square abutting onto the Kremlin wall. But this was a conference with a twist. He courageously wrote a character reference that smoothed Lenin’s admission to a university. But there was no evidence of this on autopsy, and Lenin’s syphilis test was said to have been negative. Stalin, who saw Lenin as his main obstacle to taking over the Soviet Union and wanted to get rid of him. Moreover, Lenin’s high school principal (the father of Aleksandr Kerensky, who was later to lead the Provisional government deposed by Lenin’s Bolsheviks in November [October, O.S.] The clues lie in Lenin’s family history, Dr. Vinters said. Lenin Corners, analogous to the icon corners of Orthodoxy, became a fixture of nearly every Soviet institution, and Lenin’s name graced thousands of collective and state farms, libraries, newspapers, streets and cities. A brother was executed at age 21 for plotting to assassinate Emperor Alexander III, and another brother died of typhoid at 19. In August 1887, just a few months after his brother’s death, 17-year-old Lenin entered Kazan University to study law. He did not have symptoms of a brain infection, nor did he have a brain tumor. Vladimir Lenin died on January 21, 1924, in Gorki, Russia. Lenin] State University), but within three months he was expelled from the school, having been accused of participating in an illegal student assembly. History would have been totally different.”, Lenin’s Stroke: Doctor Has a Theory (and a Suspect). On January 21, 1924 Vladimir Il’ich Lenin, the architect of the October Revolution and the “leader of the world’s proletariat,” died, having succumbed to complications from the three strokes that progressively robbed him of his faculties. He became a Marxist in January 1889. Dr. Vinters speculates that the last term referred to meningovascular syphilis, inflammation of the walls of blood vessels mainly around the brain, resulting in a thickening of the interior of the vessel. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Dr. Lurie concurred on Friday, telling the conference that poison was in his opinion the most likely immediate cause of Lenin’s death. In autumn 1887 Lenin enrolled in the faculty of law of the imperial Kazan University (later renamed Kazan [V.I. Then, in his last hours and days of his life, Lenin experienced severe seizures. Vladimir Lenin, also called Vladimir Ilich Lenin, original name Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov, (born April 10 [April 22, New Style], 1870, Simbirsk, Russia—died January 21, 1924, Gorki [later Gorki Leninskiye], near Moscow), founder of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), inspirer and leader of the Bolshevik Revolution (1917), and the architect, builder, and first head (1917–24) of the Soviet state. The most likely perpetrator? 1917) did not turn his back on the “criminal’s” family. Prominent European doctors were consulted and proposed a variety of diagnoses: nervous exhaustion, chronic lead intoxication from the two bullets lodged in his body, cerebral arteriosclerosis and “endarteritis luetica.”. Was there something more to his death than history has acknowledged? Lenin Quotes. It is difficult to identify any particular events in his childhood that might prefigure his turn onto the path of a professional revolutionary. Lenin’s father died early, too, at 54. First fragments of it appeared in October 1924 in numerous Soviet newspapers, then, as a separate edition it came out in February 1925 via Leningrad's Gosizdat. The Soviet leader Vladimir Ilyich Lenin on his death bed, in an undated photo. In spite of this, he achieved top ranking in law examinations and was awarded a law degree in 1891. If the Bolshevik Revolution is—as some people have called it—the most significant political event of the 20th century, then Lenin must for good or ill be regarded as the century’s most significant political leader. He died suddenly at 6:50 p.m. on Jan. 21, 1924, a few months before his 54th birthday. Suddenly, at age 17, Lenin became the male head of the family, which was now stigmatized as having reared a “state criminal.”. He wrote to Alexei Maximovich Gorky, “I am so tired, I do not want to do anything at all.”. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. The cause of death was said to be cerebral hemorrhage, but Lenin’s father had an illness at the time of his death that may have been typhoid fever. But he said there is one other puzzling aspect of the story. He was the founder of the organization known as Comintern (Communist International) and the posthumous source of “Leninism,” the doctrine codified and conjoined with Karl Marx’s works by Lenin’s successors to form Marxism-Leninism, which became the Communist worldview. As an adolescent Lenin suffered two blows that unquestionably influenced his subsequent decision to take the path of revolution. He distinguished himself in Latin and Greek and seemed destined for the life of a classical scholar. He was arrested and banished from Kazan to his grandfather’s estate in the village of Kokushkino, where his older sister Anna had already been ordered by the police to reside. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Share with your friends. Lenin's embalmed body is displayed in Moscow's Red Square. Emeritus Professor of History, Northern Illinois University, De Kalb. Dr. Philip A. Mackowiak, vice chairman of the university’s school of medicine and organizer of these conferences, said he later did a much more comprehensive review of Poe’s medical records and concluded that Poe’s doctor had embellished Poe’s medical history. Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov was born in Simbirsk, which was renamed Ulyanovsk in his honour. Experts differ on the likely causes of the stroke that killed Lenin at 53. Questions and answers about Russian revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin. When he was 16, nothing in Lenin indicated a future rebel, still less a professional revolutionary—except, perhaps, his turn to atheism. Vladimir Lenin died on January 21, 1924, in Gorki, Russia. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. BALTIMORE — The patient founded a totalitarian state known for its “merciless terror,” Dr. Victoria Giffi told a rapt audience of doctors and medical students on Friday afternoon. Fortunately the income from his mother’s pension and inheritance kept the family in comfortable circumstances, although it could not prevent the frequent imprisonment or exile of her children. We will encircle the last bastion of capitalism, the United States of America. First, his father was threatened shortly before his untimely death with premature retirement by a reactionary government that had grown fearful of the spread of public education. The patient was long dead — he was, in fact, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin.